Squid Pool

Cardano Glossary

There's a lot of lingo that gets flung around in Charles Hoskinson and IOG updates as well as on Twitter, Reddit, and the Cardano Forums.
Sometimes it's hard to keep track of what all the terms mean, especially if you are just learning about Cardano.
Hopefully this small glossary of Cardano related terms will be helpful.
Please let me know if you have any corrections, suggestions, or additions at info@squidpool.com.

ADAThe token used in the Cardano network. ADA is named after Augusta Ada (Byron) King, Countess of Lovelace who is known as the first computer programmer for her work with Charles Babbage's mechanical computer.
AdrestiaA set of tools and libraries for integrating with Cardano used by exchanges and developers.
Adversarial ForkWhen a fork is created by multiple leader nodes from the same stake pool. This is discouraged by the community.
AtlasNext generation blockchain explorer.
AtalaAn enterprise permissioned distributed ledger framework being developed by IOG primarily for government use.
Atala PrismBlockchain identity management solution which is being used by the country of Georgia.
Atala ScanBlockchain anti-counterfeiting solution.
Atala TraceBlockchain supply chain tracking solution which is being used by Beefchain.
BlockA collection of recent transactions that are verified and added to the blockchain.
BashoThe fifth phase of Cardano whose focus is on scalability and interoperability.
ByronThe first phase of Cardano whose primary purpose was to create liquidity for the ADA token.
Cardano-nodeThe Haskell based network node that will be used in the Shelley mainnet.
CBDCCentral Bank Digital Currency
CCCICardano Commercially Critical Infrastructure
CIPCardano Improvement Proposal
CRCCardano Request for Comment. Part of the CIP process.
DaedalusFull node wallet developed by IOG.
DIDDecentralized Identifier. This is a standard developed by the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) which can be used for blockchain based identity.
EpochA division of time in Cardano currently equal to 5 days. It is further divided into slots.
EVMSmart contract virtual machine used in Ethereum.
Extended UTXO ModelThe accounting model used in Cardano which is an extension of the Unspent Transaction Output model used by Bitcoin.
ForkWhen multiple pools create blocks from the same parent block, creating alternate blockchain candidates. See Slot Battle.
GerolamoPermissioned Cardano based blockchain solutions for Hyperledger.
GoguenThe third phase of Cardano whose primary purpose is to provide a smart contract platform for developing applications.
HaskellA functional programming language used in the development of cardano-node.
HFC EventHard Fork Comninator Event. A change in the Cardano protocol.
HoneycombAn API marketplace that links blockchain-based smart contracts to the datasets they need through decentralized oracles.
HydraThe multiheaded and highly scalable version of Ouroboros.
HyperledgerEnterprise permissioned blockchain standards industry collaboration hosted by the Linux Foundation.
IELESmart contract virtual machine alternative to EVM.
IoBInternet of Blockchains. A network of interoperable blockchains.
IOGInput Output Global. The new name of Input Output Hong Kong (IOHK). The primary developers of Cardano.
ITNThe Shelley Incentivized Tentnet.
JormungandrThe Rust based network node that has been used in the Shelley ITN.
KachinaA protocol for deploying privacy preserving smart contracts.
KESKey Evolving Signature
LovelaceOne millionth of an ADA. This is the smallest value and is the unit in which transactions are expressed in the protocol.
MarloweA DSL (Domain Specific Language) for modeling financial instruments as smart contracts built on top of Plutus and Haskell.
Nash EquilibriumA stable state of a system involving the interaction of different participants, in which no participant can gain by a unilateral change of strategy if the strategies of the others remain unchanged.
NiPoPoWNon-interactive Proof of Proof of Work. Used as a checkpointing system for PoW blockchains.
OracleA third party information provider that provides data for use in smart contracts.
OuroborosThe Proof of Stake consensus protocol used in Cardano. Named after the snake swallowing it's own tail which represents infinity.
OBFTOuroboros Byzantine Fault Tolerant. The Byron reboot permissioned blockchain consensus.
Ouroboros PraosShelley permissionless blockchain consensus.
PlutusA strictly typed pure functional programming language used for defining smart contracts in Cardano.
Plutus Application FrameworkFull featured development tools for Plutus.
Plutus FoundationBasic essentials for Plutus.
Project CatalystVoltaire experiments with real funding.
Proof of StakeInstead of using hashing power as in Proof of Work the number of coins owned (or delegated) is used to determine who validates blocks of transactions.
ROSReturn On Staking.
RosettaCustodial staking for Coinbase.
RustRust is a language similar to C++ but focused on performance and safety.
ShelleyThe second phase of Cardano whose primary purpose is to decentralize the network by introducint staking of ADA by delegators to stake pools and the creation of the treasury.
SlotThe amount of time during which a block can potentially be made. Currently 20 seconds.
Slot BattleMultiple pools assigned leadership for the same (or very close) slot. First pool to make and distribute the block gets the block reward.
Slot LeaderThe stake pool or pools that have been selected to make a block during a slot.
SMASHStakepool Metadata Aggregation Server.
SonicIOG developed improved zk-SNARK specification.
SPOStake Pool Operator
tADAADA on the incentivized testnet.
TreasuryA repository of funds created by taking a small percentage of fees and rewards which will be used to fund proposals for development of the system.
VoltaireThe fourth phase of Cardano whose primary purpose is to introduce on chain governance.
VRFVerifiable Random Function
YoroiA browser based light wallet developed by Emurgo that uses their servers to keep the entire blockchain.
zk-SNARKZero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge. This is a way of proving that you have certain information without revealing that information. It may be used to create a "light" wallet that does not need the entire blockchain or provide transaction privacy.